Fullerenes are the recently discovered type of carbon, which is quite different from earlier known diamond and graphite. The common fullerene is Extract C60, which represents the 60 molecule atoms of carbon that form the closed spherical surface that is composed of the regular hexagons & pentagons – molecular analog of the European football. This special fullerenes structure offers the unique physical & chemical properties. At present, there are many patents on use of the fullerenes in different areas of the human activity from pharmaceuticals to superconductivity.
The primary feature of the fullerenes is increased reaction activity. And they will easily capture the atoms of some other substances to form the materials with new features. This gave life to the new carbon stereochemistry, which allows creating the new organic molecules, and, substances with the desired properties and shapes. Fullerenes are used as the “nano-bricks” for design of the materials with the desired parameters.
Primary areas of the potential fullerenes application
- Advanced fullerene technology for the synthesis of the diamonds like compounds.
- New classes of semiconductors, superconductors, ferroelectrics, magnetic, and nonlinear optical materials.
- New kinds of sensors and catalysts for deciding composition of gaseous media and liquid.
- New polymers classes with the desired mechanical, electrical, optical, and magnetic properties for storage and recording of the information.
- New kinds of fuels & fuel additives.
- Classes of the antifriction coatings & lubricants, which includes fluorine-having compounds based on the fullerenes.
- Classes for pharmacology & medicine, cosmetology and biology.
- Capsules for the safe disposal of the radioactive waste.
Structures & Physical Elements of Higher Fullerenes
Fullerenes comprise of 20 hexagonal & 12 pentagonal rings for basis of the icosohedral symmetry cage structure. Every carbon atom gets bonded to 3 others and will be sp2 hybridized. C60 molecule has got 2 bond lengths – 6:6 ring bonds are considered as “double bonds” as well as are shorter than 6:5 bonds. Fullerenes C60 isn’t “super aromatic” since it avoids any double bonds in pentagonal rings, and resulting in the poor electron delocalization. Thus, C60 appears like the electron deficient alkene, as well as reacts willingly with the electron rich species. Geodesic & electronic bonding factors of the structure generally account for stability of this molecule. Thus, infinite number of the fullerenes will exist, the structure based on the pentagonal & hexagonal rings, made according to the rules to make icosahedra.
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